Developing item response theory software for outcomes and. International journal of quantitative research in education, 297315. The popular packages stata and mplus are used in the examples, along with a detailed discussion of the needed command syntax and interpretation of. There is software available for item response theory, but it is very hard for me to understand how they work. Item response theory irt is a psychometric approach which assumes that the probability of a certain response is a direct function of an underlying trait or traits. Upon completion of this book, the reader should be able to interpret test results that have been analyzed under item response theory by means of programs such.
Perhaps it is because irt is not a single statistical model, but a family of increasing complex models and estimation techniques. It is used for statistical analysis and development of assessments, often for high stakes tests such as the graduate record examination. Directory of free, open source source software for. Xcalibre item response theory software adaptive testing. But, the genesis of item response theory irt can be traced back to the midthirties and early forties. Rasch analysis, developed based on item response theory irt, is one of the primary tools to analyse the inclusiveness of mathematics assessment. Other names and subsets include item characteristic curve theory, latent trait theory, rasch model, 2pl model, 3pl model and the birnbaum model. Item response theory irt is a latent variable modeling approach used to minimize bias and optimize the measurement power of educational and psychological tests and other psychometric applications. Item response theory columbia university mailman school of.
Drawing on the work of 75 internationally acclaimed experts in the field, handbook of item response theory, threevolume set presents all major item response models, classical and modern statistical tools used in item response theory irt, and major areas of applications of irt in educational and psychological testing, medical diagnosis of patientreported outcomes, and marketing. This book is a helpful manual for understanding irt concepts and background concisely and for easily learning the freely accessible r programs for doing irt analyses. As a good starter to irt, i always recommend reading a visual guide to item response theory a survey of available software can be found on from my experience, i found the raschtest and associated stata commands very handy in most cases where one is interested in fitting oneparameter model. Item response theory clearly describes the most recently developed irt models and furnishes detailed explanations of algorithms that can be used to estimate the item or ability parameters under various irt models. Directory of free, open source source software for irt and classical test theory applications. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. This suggestion allowed me to fulfill a longstanding desire to develop an instructional software package dealing with item response theory for the thenstateoftheart apple ii and ibm pc computers. In fact, the term item characteristic curve, which is one of the main irt concepts, can be attributed to ledyard tucker in 1946.
You have reached the directory for open source item response theory software. Sep 05, 20 this book develops an intuitive understanding of irt principles through the use of graphical displays and analogies to familiar psychological principles. Thus irt models the response of each examinee of a given ability to each item in the test. Marcoulides, is a comprehensive introduction to the concepts of irt that includes numerous examples using statas powerful suite of irt commands. Using r for item response theory model applications is a practical guide for students, instructors, practitioners, and applied researchers who want to learn how to. His areas of expertise include topics such as item response theory, latent class analysis, diagnostic classification models, and, more broadly, classification and mixture distribution models, computational statistics, personfit, item fit, and model checking, hierarchical extension of models for categorical data analysis, and the analytical. How to get started with applying item response theory and. Readers of this book may now find a new version of the program, written in visual basic 5. It can also be used to select the best items for measuring a latent trait. But i have found that it is very difficult to learn item response theory unless you understand the motivation behind it. Explanatory item response models a generalized linear and. Various functions have been proposed to model this relationship.
Finally, there are a number of good books available for rasch and irt models. Item and person parameters do not change across populations. Applying item response theory modeling in educational research. The item response theory irt, also known as the latent response theory. His areas of expertise include topics such as item response theory, latent class analysis, diagnostic classification models, and, more broadly, classification and mixture distribution models, computational statistics, personfit, itemfit, and model checking, hierarchical extension of models for categorical data analysis, and the analytical. This allows you to get familiar with the program immediately, and start learning the advanced methods of item response theory.
Jan 01, 2009 item response theory irt is a latent variable modeling approach used to minimize bias and optimize the measurement power of educational and psychological tests and other psychometric applications. The first edition of this book was designed to provide the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations through an apple ii computer program. Lords book, applications of item response theory to practical testing problems, presented much of the current irt theory in language easily understood by many practitioners. A multilevel, multidimensional, and multiple group item response theory irt software package for item analysis and test scoring. An added bonus is detailed discussions on model fit and model comparison that is a crucial aspect of modelbased inference and yet is often neglected in textbooks. Item response theory aka irt is also sometimes called latent trait theory. Lords book, applications of item response theory to practical testing problems. Applying item response theory modeling in educational research daitrang le iowa state university follow this and additional works at. Stata 14 introduces a new suite of commands for fitting irt item response theory models, reporting estimates, and graphing results. Sep 10, 2012 this sounds like it belongs in a selfhelp book. Designed for researchers, psychometric professionals, and advanced students, this book clearly presents both the howto and the why of irt. The item response theory irt, also known as the latent response theory refers to a family of mathematical models that attempt to explain the relationship between latent traits unobservable characteristic or attribute and their manifestations i.
A course in item response theory and modeling with stata. Item response theory columbia university mailman school. Handbook of diagnostic classification models models and. Item response theory irt has become a popular methodological framework for modeling response data from assessments in education and health. Software should be userfriendly, flexible, and inclusive of a variety of irt models. A course in item response theory and modeling with stata, by tenko raykov and george a. Part of theinstructional media design commons, and thestatistics and probability commons. This book is a great introduction to both the r program for item response theory irt analysis and irt modeling itself for readers who want a firm grasp on both skills.
These three books item response theory principles and applications, item. This suggestion allowed me to fulfill a longstanding desire to develop an instructional software package dealing with item response theory for the. The theory and practice of item response theory rafael. Item response theory psychology oxford bibliographies. How to get started with applying item response theory and what. Item response theory is done using factor analysis of tetrachoric and polychoric correlations.
Xcalibre 4 is available as a free version limited to 50 items and 50 examinees. Although demars irt can be considered to be an introductory book and requires almost no mathstats background it covers a variety of topics about item response theory. It covered basic concepts, comparison to ctt methods, relative efficiency, optimal number of choices per item, flexilevel tests, multistage tests, tailored testing. As a result of a comprehensive survey of the related literature, the author provides nuggets of information about a wide range of rules of thumb and analysis alternatives.
The first edition, with its accompanying software, was designed to give the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory without having to do the tedious mathematics. Procedures for personality and psychological research. Abstract item response theory irt is concerned with accurate test scoring and development of test items. Novick on test theory, which was an expansion of his dissertation. The term item is generic, covering all kinds of informative items. Item response theory statistical workshops in philadelphia. An application of item response theory to psychological test. Functions for analyzing data at multiple levels include within and between group statistics, including correlations and factor analysis. This edition contains an annotated list of recommended readings and web resources and updated software for the internet. What it is and how you can use the irt procedure to apply it xinming an and yiufai yung, sas institute inc. Comparing the fit of item response theory and factor. This book develops an intuitive understanding of irt principles through the use of graphical displays and analogies to familiar psychological principles. This book is combined with a web site to allow the reader to acquire the basic. Applications of irt were seen in many ets testing programs.
Can anyone provide help using software for item response theory. Functions for simulating and testing particular item and test structures are included. You design test items to measure various kinds of abilities such as math ability, traits such as. If you still need to learn more about what irt is, read this introductory article, then if you want more i recommend the book item response theory for psychologists by embretson and reise 2000. Item response theory is the study of test and item scores based on assumptions concerning the mathematical relationship between abilities or other hypothesized traits and item responses. Using r for item response theory model applications is a practical guide for students, instructors, practitioners, and applied researchers who want to learn how to properly use r irt packages to perform irt model calibrations with their own data. The effect of sample size on item parameter estimation for the partial credit model.
In the decade of the 1970s, item response theory became the dominant topic for study by measurement specialists. Includes a list of recommended readings, online resources, and exercises that can be completed in companion software. Bayesian analysis of item response theory models using sas. Using r for item response theory model applications 1st. This web page will enable you to down load the software package that accompanies the basics of item response theory book. Irt models are available for binary, graded, rated, partialcredit, and nominal response. Irt provides a foundation for statistical methods that are utilized in contexts such as test development, item analysis, equating, item banking, and computerized adaptive testing. If you know of opensource irt software that should be referenced here, please drop the webmaster a note. Various functions have been proposed to model this relationship, and the different calibration packages reflect this. As a good starter to irt, i always recommend reading a visual guide to item response theory a survey of available software can be found on from my experience, i found the raschtest and associated stata commands very handy in most cases where one. Seavey of heinemann educational books for first suggesting that i do a small book on item response theory, which resulted in the first edition of this book in 1985. His work with the ets had impacts on the law school admissions test, the test of english as a foreign language, and the graduate record exam.
It is not the only modern test theory, but it is the most popular one and is currently an area of active research. Item response theory also known as modern test theory is a mathematical approach for quantifying latent traits based on the fundamental assumption that a subjects response to an item is a function of the difference between 1 hisher abilities and 2 the characteristics of the item. Using r for item response theory model applications. Item response theory irt is widely used in education and psychology and is expanding its applications to other social science areas, medical research, and business as well. This is a modern test theory as opposed to classical test theory. This book describes various item response theory models and furnishes detailed explanations of algorithms that can be used to estimate the item and ability parameters. This delightful book will allow you to acquire the basic concepts of the theory without becoming enmeshed in the underlying mathematics and computational. The name item response theory is due to the focus of the theory on the item, as opposed to the testlevel focus of classical test theory. Item response theory is used to describe the application of mathematical models to data from questionnaires and tests as a basis for measuring abilities, attitudes, or other variables. The seminar draws substantially from and goes well beyond professor raykovs recently published book with professor g. This paper aims to provide a didactic application of irt and to highlight some of these advantages for psychological test development. Rasch modeling columbia university mailman school of public.1334 70 1493 1122 637 1483 243 170 887 1068 440 1532 956 1241 1482 1128 247 704 296 161 675 1499 751 137 395 1079 452 711 1433 1258 1077 742 787 372 736 191 1042 1043 171 742 1468 200 404 159